Relative flow between granular material and gas can create phenomena in which particles behave like a liquid with bubbles rising through them. In this paper, magnetic resonance imaging is used to measure the velocities of the gas and solid phases in a bubbling fluidized bed. Comparison with theory shows that the average velocity of gas through the interstices between particles is predicted correctly by classic analytical theory. Experiments were also used to validate predictions from computer simulations of gas and solid motion. The experiments show a wide distribution of gas velocities in both bubbling and emulsion regions, providing a different direction for computational and analytical theory.
Boyce, C. M., Rice, N. P., Ozel, A., Davidson, J. F., Sederman, A. J., Gladden, L. F., ... Holland, D. J. (2016). Magnetic resonance characterization of coupled gas and particle dynamics in a bubbling fluidized bed. Physical Review Fluids, 1(7), . https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevFluids.1.074201