Machine Learning-based Urban Canyon Path Loss Prediction using 28 GHz Manhattan Measurements

Ankit Gupta, Jinfeng Du, Dmitry Chizhik, Reinaldo A. Valenzuela, Mathini Sellathurai

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Abstract

Large bandwidth at mm-wave is crucial for 5G and beyond but the high path loss (PL) requires highly accurate PL prediction for network planning and optimization. Statistical models with slope-intercept fit fall short in capturing large variations seen in urban canyons, whereas ray-tracing, capable of characterizing site-specific features, faces challenges in describing foliage and street clutter and associated reflection/diffraction ray calculation. Machine learning (ML) is promising but faces three key challenges in PL prediction: 1) insufficient measurement data; 2) lack of extrapolation to new streets; 3) overwhelmingly complex features/models. We propose an ML-based urban canyon PL prediction model based on extensive 28 GHz measurements from Manhattan where street clutters are modeled via a LiDAR point cloud dataset and buildings by a mesh-grid building dataset. We extract expert knowledge-driven street clutter features from the point cloud and aggressively compress 3D-building information using convolutional-autoencoder. Using a new street-by-street training and testing procedure to improve generalizability, the proposed model using both clutter and building features achieves a prediction error (RMSE) of 4.8 ± 1.1 dB compared to 10.6 ± 4.4 dB and 6.5 ± 2.0 dB for 3GPP LOS and slope-intercept prediction, respectively, where the standard deviation indicates street-by-street variation. By only using four most influential clutter features, RMSE of 5.5 ± 1.1 dB is achieved.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Early online date28 Feb 2022
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 28 Feb 2022

Keywords

  • Area measurement
  • Buildings
  • Clutter
  • Frequency measurement
  • Gain measurement
  • Loss measurement
  • Path loss prediction
  • Predictive models
  • machine learning
  • mesh grid
  • mm-wave
  • point cloud
  • urban street canyon

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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