Longitudinally variable 3D optical polarization structures

Yan Li, Muhammad Afnan Ansari, Hammad Ahmed, Ruoxing Wang, Guanchao Wang, Xianzhong Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
19 Downloads (Pure)


Generation and manipulation of three-dimensional (3D) optical polarization structures have received considerable interest because of their distinctive optical features and potential applications. However, the realization of multiple 3D polarization structures in a queue along the light propagation direction has not yet been reported. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a metalens to create longitudinally variable 3D polarization knots. A single metalens can simultaneously generate three distinct 3D polarization knots, which are indirectly validated with a rotating polarizer. The 3D polarization profiles are dynamically modulated by manipulating the linear polarization direction of the incident light. We further showcase the 3D image steganography with the generated 3D polarization structures. The ultrathin nature of metasurfaces and unique properties of the developed metalenses hold promise for lightweight polarization systems applicable to areas such as 3D image steganography and virtual reality.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbereadj6675
JournalScience Advances
Issue number47
Early online date22 Nov 2023
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023


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