Learning Quantum Systems

Valentin Gebhart, Raffaele Santagati, Antonio Andrea Gentile, Erik M. Gauger, David Craig, Natalia Ares, Leonardo Banchi, Florian Marquardt, Luca Pezze, Cristian Bonato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)
177 Downloads (Pure)


The future development of quantum technologies relies on creating and manipulating quantum systems of increasing complexity, with key applications in computation, simulation and sensing. This poses severe challenges in the efficient control, calibration and validation of quantum states and their dynamics. Although the full simulation of large-scale quantum systems may only be possible on a quantum computer, classical characterization and optimization methods still play an important role. Here, we review different approaches that use classical post-processing techniques, possibly combined with adaptive optimization, to learn quantum systems, their correlation properties, dynamics and interaction with the environment. We discuss theoretical proposals and successful implementations across different multiple-qubit architectures such as spin qubits, trapped ions, photonic and atomic systems, and superconducting circuits. This Review provides a brief background of key concepts recurring across many of these approaches with special emphasis on the Bayesian formalism and neural networks.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)141–156
Number of pages16
JournalNature Reviews Physics
Issue number3
Early online date9 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


  • quant-ph

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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