Learning Maximally Monotone Operators for Image Recovery

Jean-Christophe Pesquet, Audrey Repetti, Matthieu Terris, Yves Wiaux

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We introduce a new paradigm for solving regularized variational problems. These are typically formulated to address ill-posed inverse problems encountered in signal and image pro- cessing. The objective function is traditionally defined by adding a regularization function to a data fit term, which is subsequently minimized by using iterative optimization algorithms. Recently, several works have proposed to replace the operator related to the regularization by a more sophis- ticated denoiser. These approaches, known as plug-and-play (PnP) methods, have shown excellent performance. Although it has been noticed that, under some Lipschitz properties on the denoisers, the convergence of the resulting algorithm is guaranteed, little is known about characterizing the asymptotically delivered solution. In the current article, we propose to address this limitation. More specifically, instead of employing a functional regularization, we perform an operator regularization, where a maximally monotone operator (MMO) is learned in a supervised manner. This formulation is flexible as it allows the solution to be characterized through a broad range of variational inequal- ities, and it includes convex regularizations as special cases. From an algorithmic standpoint, the proposed approach consists in replacing the resolvent of the MMO by a neural network (NN). We present a universal approximation theorem proving that nonexpansive NNs are suitable models for the resolvent of a wide class of MMOs. The proposed approach thus provides a sound theoretical framework for analyzing the asymptotic behavior of first-order PnP algorithms. In addition, we propose a numerical strategy to train NNs corresponding to resolvents of MMOs. We apply our approach to image restoration problems and demonstrate its validity in terms of both convergence and quality.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1206-1237
Number of pages32
JournalSIAM Journal on Imaging Sciences
Issue number3
Early online date19 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - 2021


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