Is high-dimensional photonic entanglement robust to noise?

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High-dimensional entangled states are of significant interest in quantum science as they increase the information content per photon and can remain entangled in the presence of significant noise. The authors develop the analytical theory and show experimentally that the noise tolerance of high-dimensional entanglement can be significantly increased by a modest increase in the size of the Hilbert space. For example, doubling the size of a Hilbert space with a local dimension of d = 300 leads to a reduction in the threshold detector efficiencies required for entanglement certification by two orders of magnitude. This work is developed in the context of spatial entanglement in the few-photon limit, but it can easily be translated to photonic states entangled in different degrees of freedom. The authors also demonstrate that knowledge of a single parameter, the signal-to-noise ratio, precisely links measures of entanglement to a range of experimental parameters quantifying noise in a quantum communication system, enabling accurate predictions of its performance. This work serves to answer a simple question: “Is high-dimensional photonic entanglement robust to noise?” Here, the authors show that the answer is more nuanced than a simple “yes” or “no” and involves a complex interplay between the noise characteristics of the state, channel, and detection system
Original languageEnglish
Article number011401
JournalAVS Quantum Science
Issue number1
Early online date12 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


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