Investigation of power quality issues in 14-bus electrical network with high penetration of renewable generation

Malcolm Isaac Fernandez, Yun Ii Go*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Power quality issues arise in electrical networks when variable renewable energy (VRE) is integrated into them due to their random and intermittent nature which depends on weather conditions and other factors. The variation of solar irradiance throughout the day affects the energy produced by solar panels and the integration of solar power into electrical networks will result in changes and fluctuations in the voltage profile of buses. Reactive power compensation is required to improve the bus voltage levels of the electrical network to be within the required limits and the optimal allocation of reactive power compensation devices in the network is a complex problem to be investigated for the optimum injection of reactive power to obtain better voltage profiles for the entire network. This research investigated the penetration of variable solar energy into an electrical network in terms of voltage and reactive power flow. A variety of literature was reviewed in the scope of reactive power management in power systems and a gap in addressing the optimal allocation of compensation devices in the IEEE-14 bus was addressed based on the proposed methods followed by discussions of the results in terms of voltage profiles and reactive power flow in the buses. The objective is to produce an output power of higher quality and reliability for the loads so that intermittent sources of renewable energy can be more competent with energy sources such as fossil fuels that do not depend on weather conditions. Integration of methods using compensation optimisation (optimal allocation of capacitors) and volt-var regulation (smart inverter) to improve the voltage profile that was dropped and the fluctuations after penetration of solar power were carried out. A solar bus with variable energy generation was connected to the IEEE-14 bus to study the voltage variations. This was executed by the power flow calculation module to determine the voltages and reactive power in the buses of the network. With the optimum allocation of the capacitors, the voltage levels in all weak buses of the IEEE-14 bus were increased to be between 0.95 p.u. and 1.05 p.u. which was the voltage specifications of the Malaysian Grid Code Requirements. The voltage for every weak bus in the IEEE-14 bus showed a rise of 5.7% from 7 a.m. to 12 p.m. With that, the volt-var function was used for reactive power regulation at the point of common coupling (PCC) and a reduction of voltage deviation of 2.828 to 1.3% in the IEEE-14 bus was observed. The average voltage profile of all buses managed to attain a value of 98.99% from 95.673% (with solar power) with the optimal allocation of capacitors and volt-var regulation. The beneficiaries of this project will be the Sustainable Energy Development Authority (SEDA) which administers the Net Energy Metering (NEM) scheme and Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) which is the Malaysian multinational electrical company focused primarily on the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity in Peninsular Malaysia. The Energy Commission and Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources are also beneficiaries as they carried out a competitive bidding programme for large-scale solar (LSS) known as the LSS@MEnTARI or LSSPV4 to attain bids for the development of around 1000 MW AC of LSS power plants to be operational in Malaysia by 2022. This work will also be beneficial in future research in planning reactive power compensation devices in networks of multiple VRE sources, communication, and coordinated control of smart inverters, and incorporation of these devices for smart grid applications.
Original languageEnglish
Article number10
JournalDiscover Energy
Publication statusPublished - 9 Dec 2023


  • Volt-var
  • Optimal allocation
  • Compensation
  • Power Flow


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