Investigating the governing factors influencing the pozzolanic activity through a database approach for the development of sustainable cementitious materials

H. G. Tural, Bertug Ozarisoy*, Shahram Derogar, Ceren Ince

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Downloads (Pure)


Pozzolans, known to possess high pozzolanic activity, enhances the long-term engineering properties of concrete due to the consumption of calcium hydroxide and the consequent formation of the calcium-silicate-hydrate gels within the cementitious matrix. Although the key factors that affect the pozzolanic activity such as the chemical composition, amorphousness, and fineness are commonly addressed in literature, there is a growing need to further gain an insight into the factors that govern this activity in a more comprehensive approach. The aim of this empirical study is to develop concrete models comprising optimal replacement of pozzolans based on the governing factors affecting the activity through the database approach. The database, consisting of 631 number of data points harvested from the literature, is established to determine the optimum replacement levels of the designated pozzolans in concrete. The governing factors therefore played a key role in establishing the boundary conditions that enabled the potential concrete models to be generated particularly for the sustainability assessment of concrete incorporating pozzolans. The study shows that the optimum replacement levels in concrete mixtures are 15–50% for GGBS, 10–35% for fly ash, and 5–15% for silica fume. The study furthermore demonstrated that the utilisation of these substitutions leaded a considerable reduction in carbon emissions that ranged from 13% to 43% for GGBS, 9–31% for fly ash, and 4–13% for silica fume. The study significantly contributes to the generation of greener construction materials, and offers a cleaner disposal route for the pozzolans principally compared to the traditional waste management alternatives.
Original languageEnglish
Article number134253
JournalConstruction and Building Materials
Early online date14 Dec 2023
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jan 2024


  • Mineralogy
  • Optimized models
  • Portland Cement
  • Pozzolans
  • Sustainability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Building and Construction
  • Civil and Structural Engineering

Cite this