Interlaced Laser Beam Scanning: A Method Enabling an Increase in the Throughput of Ultrafast Laser Machining of Borosilicate Glass

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We provide experimental evidence that the laser beam scanning strategy has a significant influence on material removal rate in the ultrafast laser machining of glass. A comparative study of two laser beam scanning methods, (i) bidirectional sequential scanning method (SM) and (ii) bidirectional interlaced scanning method (IM), is presented for micromachining 1.1-mm-thick borosilicate glass plates (Borofloat® 33). Material removal rate and surface roughness are measured for a range of pulse energies, overlaps, and repetition frequencies. With a pulse overlap of ≤90%, IM can provide double the ablation depth and double the removal rate in comparison to SM, whilst maintaining very similar surface roughness. In both cases, the root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness (Sq) was in the range of 1 μm to 2.5 μm. For a 95% pulse overlap, the difference was more pronounced, with IM providing up to four times the ablation depth of SM; however, this is at the cost of a significant increase in surface roughness (Sq values >5 μm). The increased ablation depths and removal rates with IM are attributed to a layer-by-layer material removal process, providing more efficient ejection of glass particles and, hence, reduced shielding of the machined area. IM also has smaller local angles of incidence of the laser beam that potentially can lead to a better coupling efficiency of the laser beam with the material.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14
JournalJournal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
Volume3
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jan 2019

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laser machining
borosilicate glass
laser beams
scanning
surface roughness
machining
ablation
pulses
glass
micromachining
ejection
shielding
repetition
roughness
incidence

Keywords

  • Ultrafast lasers
  • Picosecond laser
  • Micromachining
  • Laser ablation
  • Laser machining throughput
  • Glass
  • Borosilicate glass
  • Borofloat 33

Cite this

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title = "Interlaced Laser Beam Scanning: A Method Enabling an Increase in the Throughput of Ultrafast Laser Machining of Borosilicate Glass",
abstract = "We provide experimental evidence that the laser beam scanning strategy has a significant influence on material removal rate in the ultrafast laser machining of glass. A comparative study of two laser beam scanning methods, (i) bidirectional sequential scanning method (SM) and (ii) bidirectional interlaced scanning method (IM), is presented for micromachining 1.1-mm-thick borosilicate glass plates (Borofloat{\circledR} 33). Material removal rate and surface roughness are measured for a range of pulse energies, overlaps, and repetition frequencies. With a pulse overlap of ≤90{\%}, IM can provide double the ablation depth and double the removal rate in comparison to SM, whilst maintaining very similar surface roughness. In both cases, the root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness (Sq) was in the range of 1 μm to 2.5 μm. For a 95{\%} pulse overlap, the difference was more pronounced, with IM providing up to four times the ablation depth of SM; however, this is at the cost of a significant increase in surface roughness (Sq values >5 μm). The increased ablation depths and removal rates with IM are attributed to a layer-by-layer material removal process, providing more efficient ejection of glass particles and, hence, reduced shielding of the machined area. IM also has smaller local angles of incidence of the laser beam that potentially can lead to a better coupling efficiency of the laser beam with the material.",
keywords = "Ultrafast lasers, Picosecond laser, Micromachining, Laser ablation, Laser machining throughput, Glass, Borosilicate glass, Borofloat 33",
author = "Wlodarczyk, {Krystian L.} and Lopes, {Amiel A.} and Paul Blair and Maroto-Valer, {M. Mercedes} and Hand, {Duncan Paul}",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
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doi = "10.3390/jmmp3010014",
language = "English",
volume = "3",
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journal = "Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Interlaced Laser Beam Scanning: A Method Enabling an Increase in the Throughput of Ultrafast Laser Machining of Borosilicate Glass

AU - Wlodarczyk, Krystian L.

AU - Lopes, Amiel A.

AU - Blair, Paul

AU - Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes

AU - Hand, Duncan Paul

PY - 2019/1/23

Y1 - 2019/1/23

N2 - We provide experimental evidence that the laser beam scanning strategy has a significant influence on material removal rate in the ultrafast laser machining of glass. A comparative study of two laser beam scanning methods, (i) bidirectional sequential scanning method (SM) and (ii) bidirectional interlaced scanning method (IM), is presented for micromachining 1.1-mm-thick borosilicate glass plates (Borofloat® 33). Material removal rate and surface roughness are measured for a range of pulse energies, overlaps, and repetition frequencies. With a pulse overlap of ≤90%, IM can provide double the ablation depth and double the removal rate in comparison to SM, whilst maintaining very similar surface roughness. In both cases, the root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness (Sq) was in the range of 1 μm to 2.5 μm. For a 95% pulse overlap, the difference was more pronounced, with IM providing up to four times the ablation depth of SM; however, this is at the cost of a significant increase in surface roughness (Sq values >5 μm). The increased ablation depths and removal rates with IM are attributed to a layer-by-layer material removal process, providing more efficient ejection of glass particles and, hence, reduced shielding of the machined area. IM also has smaller local angles of incidence of the laser beam that potentially can lead to a better coupling efficiency of the laser beam with the material.

AB - We provide experimental evidence that the laser beam scanning strategy has a significant influence on material removal rate in the ultrafast laser machining of glass. A comparative study of two laser beam scanning methods, (i) bidirectional sequential scanning method (SM) and (ii) bidirectional interlaced scanning method (IM), is presented for micromachining 1.1-mm-thick borosilicate glass plates (Borofloat® 33). Material removal rate and surface roughness are measured for a range of pulse energies, overlaps, and repetition frequencies. With a pulse overlap of ≤90%, IM can provide double the ablation depth and double the removal rate in comparison to SM, whilst maintaining very similar surface roughness. In both cases, the root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness (Sq) was in the range of 1 μm to 2.5 μm. For a 95% pulse overlap, the difference was more pronounced, with IM providing up to four times the ablation depth of SM; however, this is at the cost of a significant increase in surface roughness (Sq values >5 μm). The increased ablation depths and removal rates with IM are attributed to a layer-by-layer material removal process, providing more efficient ejection of glass particles and, hence, reduced shielding of the machined area. IM also has smaller local angles of incidence of the laser beam that potentially can lead to a better coupling efficiency of the laser beam with the material.

KW - Ultrafast lasers

KW - Picosecond laser

KW - Micromachining

KW - Laser ablation

KW - Laser machining throughput

KW - Glass

KW - Borosilicate glass

KW - Borofloat 33

U2 - 10.3390/jmmp3010014

DO - 10.3390/jmmp3010014

M3 - Article

VL - 3

SP - 14

JO - Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing

JF - Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing

SN - 2504-4494

IS - 1

ER -