In this article, an enactive architecture is described that allows a humanoid robot to learn to compose simple actions into turn-taking behaviours while playing interaction games with a human partner. The robot’s action choices are reinforced by social feedback from the human in the form of visual attention and measures of behavioural synchronisation. We demonstrate that the system can acquire and switch between behaviours learned through interaction based on social feedback from the human partner. The role of reinforcement based on a short-term memory of the interaction was experimentally investigated. Results indicate that feedback based only on the immediate experience was insufficient to learn longer, more complex turn-taking behaviours. Therefore, some history of the interaction must be considered in the acquisition of turn-taking, which can be efficiently handled through the use of short-term memory.
Broz, F., Nehaniv, C. L., Kose, H., & Dautenhahn, K. (2019). Interaction Histories and Short Term Memory: Enactive Development of Turn-taking Behaviors in a Childlike Humanoid Robot. Philosophies, 4(2), . https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies4020026