Integrated Biorefineries

Denny K. S. Ng*, Kok Siew Ng, Rex T. L. Ng

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

23 Citations (Scopus)


Biorefineries are processing facilities that convert biomass into value-added products such as biofuels, biochemicals, bioenergy/biopower, and other biomaterials. Various types of biorefineries have been presented in the literature. Most of them are mainly defined based on the individual feedstock, such as corn-based biorefinery, wood-based biorefinery, forest-based biorefinery, palm-based biorefinery, algae-based biorefinery, etc. On the other hand, some researchers and technologists defined biorefineries based on the generation of feedstock, which are first-generation biorefinery (energy crop, edible oil seeds, food crops, animal fats, etc.), second-generation biorefinery (lignocellulosic biomass), and third- or fourth-generation biorefinery (algae and other microbes). However, to further enhance the efficiency of such biorefinery, the concept of integrated biorefinery, which focuses on the integration of various biomass conversion technologies, is proposed. Within integrated biorefinery, multiple feedstocks can be used to generate various types of products. As the characteristic and properties of the feedback are significantly different from one and other, therefore, it is a huge challenge in designing biorefinery and integrated biorefinery. Various conversion platforms (thermochemical, biological, catalytic, and physical) have been studied to convert the feedstock into products. Besides, in order to design a sustainable biorefinery/integrated biorefinery, various process design and analysis tools have been developed. Process integration concept is also adapted in design stage to further improve the economic and environmental performances of the biorefinery/integrated biorefinery. Case study of integrated biorefineries is also included in this article.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Sustainable Technologies
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9780128046777
ISBN (Print)9780128047927
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Biofuels
  • Biomass
  • Biorefineries
  • Feedstock
  • Fermentation
  • Fossil fuels

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Environmental Science


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