Incubation of salmon eggs and rearing of alevins

Natural temperature fluctuations and their influence on hatchery requirements

M. G. Poxton

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    The eggs and alevins of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) are normally reared in Scotland using surface water in open flow systems. The literature indicated that incubation temperatures should generally be in the range 4°-11°C. A strategy that might lead to most success would be to keep green eggs at 6°C and then reduce the temperature to 4°C during subsequent development. Genetic variations between races of salmon in different river systems may partly account for differences in reported incubation times. Several northern stocks are known to be cold-adapted and it seems clear that standardised incubation regimes are inappropriate in the absence of standardised fish and water quality. The cumulative ambient water temperatures at four Scottish hatcheries were shown to approximate those required by the industry, although some very low temperatures were regularly experienced. The technology for temperature control is generally available, but has not been widely used. To be most succussful it should be geared towards producing fish ready for first feeding by the end of April, as natural temperatures are increasing rapidly (10°-14°C), so that an open flow system can be used for feeding. A review of the literature showed that temperature effects should not be considered in isolation. Low pH, resulting from acid rain and snow-melts, was also recognised as a potential problem as was subsequent metal pollution. To be most effective, recycle systems should be designed to control both temperature and pH. © 1991.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)31-53
    Number of pages23
    JournalAquacultural Engineering
    Volume10
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 1991

    Fingerprint

    fish roe
    alevins
    hatcheries
    salmon
    rearing
    temperature
    Salmo salar
    recirculating aquaculture systems
    acid deposition
    fish
    snow
    Scotland
    ambient temperature
    surface water
    water temperature
    water quality
    pollution
    metals
    industry
    genetic variation

    Cite this

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    abstract = "The eggs and alevins of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) are normally reared in Scotland using surface water in open flow systems. The literature indicated that incubation temperatures should generally be in the range 4°-11°C. A strategy that might lead to most success would be to keep green eggs at 6°C and then reduce the temperature to 4°C during subsequent development. Genetic variations between races of salmon in different river systems may partly account for differences in reported incubation times. Several northern stocks are known to be cold-adapted and it seems clear that standardised incubation regimes are inappropriate in the absence of standardised fish and water quality. The cumulative ambient water temperatures at four Scottish hatcheries were shown to approximate those required by the industry, although some very low temperatures were regularly experienced. The technology for temperature control is generally available, but has not been widely used. To be most succussful it should be geared towards producing fish ready for first feeding by the end of April, as natural temperatures are increasing rapidly (10°-14°C), so that an open flow system can be used for feeding. A review of the literature showed that temperature effects should not be considered in isolation. Low pH, resulting from acid rain and snow-melts, was also recognised as a potential problem as was subsequent metal pollution. To be most effective, recycle systems should be designed to control both temperature and pH. {\circledC} 1991.",
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    Incubation of salmon eggs and rearing of alevins : Natural temperature fluctuations and their influence on hatchery requirements. / Poxton, M. G.

    In: Aquacultural Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1991, p. 31-53.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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