In-plane permeability characterization of engineering textiles based on radial flow experiments: A benchmark exercise

David May*, A. Aktas, S. G. Advani, D. C. Berg, A. Endruweit, E. Fauster, S. V. Lomov, A. C. Long, P. Mitschang, Sergey G. Abaimov, D. Abliz, I. Akhatov, Ali Anttho, T. D. Allen, S. Bickerton, M. Bodaghi, B. Caglar, H. Caglar, A. Chiminelli, N. CorreiaB. Cosson, M. Danzi, J. Dittmann, Paolo A. Ermanni, G. Francucci, A. George, V. Grishaev, M. Hancioglu, M. A. Kabachi, K. Kind, M. Deléglise-Lagardère, M. Laspalas, O. V. Lebedev, M. Lizaranzu, P. -J. Liotier, P. Middendorf, J. Morán, C. -H. Park, R. B. Pipes, M. F. Pucci, J. Raynal, E. S. Rodriguez, R. Schledjewski, R. Schubnel, N. Sharp, G. Sims, E. M. Sozer, P. Sousa, Rehan Umer, W. Wijaya, B. Willenbacher, A. Yong, S. Zaremba, G. Ziegmann, International Benchmark Excercise

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

86 Citations (Scopus)


Although good progress was made by two international benchmark exercises on in-plane permeability, existing methods have not yet been standardized. This paper presents the results of a third benchmark exercise using in-plane permeability measurement, based on systems applying the radial unsaturated injection method. 19 participants using 20 systems characterized a non-crimp and a woven fabric at three different fiber volume contents, using a commercially available silicone oil as impregnating fluid. They followed a detailed characterization procedure and also completed a questionnaire on their set-up and analysis methods. Excluding outliers (2 of 20), the average coefficient of variation (cv) between the participant’s results was 32% and 44% (non-crimp and woven fabric), while the average cv for individual participants was 8% and 12%, respectively. This indicates statistically significant variations between the measurement systems. Cavity deformation was identified as a major influence, besides fluid pressure/viscosity measurement, textile variations, and data analysis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)100-114
Number of pages15
JournalComposites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2019


  • A. Fabrics/textiles
  • B. Permeability
  • D. Process monitoring
  • E. Liquid composite molding
  • E. Resin flow

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Mechanics of Materials


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