Immobilization of saponin on chitosan Milli-particles for Type II diabetic treatment

Maxine Yew, Chang Nong Lim, Boon Aik Liam, Kai Seng Koh, Siew Shee Lim, Billie Hiew, Ju Yen Fu

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Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has caused an adverse impact on the health of more than a tenth of the Malaysian population. Saponin is a traditional herbal extract found to be effective in treating T2DM with milder toxicity, which makes it a good alternative to conventional anti-diabetic drugs with side effects. This research develops an effective drug delivery vehicle to transport the saponin extract via chitosan milli-particles (CPs) for targeted release in the digestive system. Saponin was loaded onto the CPs via electrostatic interaction following the surface charge alteration of the CPs. Swelling tests and an in vitro study based on simulated gastrointestinal conditions were conducted on the saponin-immobilized CPs (SICPs). The release of saponin from its carrier is attributed to Fickian diffusion and swelling of the chitosan milli-particle matrix at pH 1.2 and 6.8.
Original languageEnglish
Article number134686
JournalMaterials Letters
Early online date5 Jun 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2023


  • Biomaterial
  • Chitosan
  • Diabetes
  • Milli-fluidic
  • Saponin
  • Surfaces

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • General Materials Science


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