Identity Development in Trinidad: Status Differences by Age, Adulthood Transitions, and Culture

Mary J. Arneaud, Nicole Alea, Makayla Espinet

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Identity status differences by age, adulthood transitions (e.g., marriage), and values were examined in Trinidadians (N = 172) ranging from 11 to 84 years old using the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS; Crocetti, Rubini, & Meeus, 2008). Cluster analysis revealed five identity statuses: moratorium, active moratorium, diffusion, evaluative moratorium, and achievement. As expected, identity achievement (i.e., commitment and exploration high, reconsideration low) was most common in midlife and among those who had made transitions to marriage and parenthood. Achievement was also associated with higher conservation values (i.e., valuing norm adherence), compared to active moratorium (i.e., commitment low, exploration and reconsideration high). The moratorium status (i.e., commitment and exploration low, reconsideration high) was associated with employment, though age moderated this effect (younger adults who were employed were less likely to be in moratorium). Findings are discussed considering chronological age, culturally meaningful markers of transitioning to adulthood, and the relations between values, well-being, and national levels of human development.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)59-71
Number of pages13
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Adulthood transitions
  • culture

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology


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