Identification of Risks Exposed to The Development of Zakat and Wakaf Housing in Malaysia

Puteri Nur Farah Naadia Mohd Fauzi*, Zahidah Jahidi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Risk management is a constant effort that must be carried out throughout the life of a project. For construction and property development projects, the administration of each risk management stage is important due to the nature of the work involved. Specifically, in deliberating the collaboration between zakat and wakaf resources in the provision of low-cost housing or its equivalent for the asnaf and poor, it is crucial to identify the risks involved and the best way to manage them. Otherwise, the authorities' support, for instance, housing-related assistance, for instance, building new and repairing houses, could not be wisely utilized and maintained should any catastrophes occur. In the event of a calamity, the recipients will lose their houses. Especially for the asnaf and needy, given that they are already poor, their standard of living will deteriorate. The identification of risks exposed to housing development has been addressed in current literature, but little research has specifically identified the vulnerabilities associated with zakat and wakaf housing development. This study is conducted in an attempt to identify risks exposed to the development of zakat and wakaf housing in Malaysia via content analysis of relevant documents and a series of interviews with related stakeholders. The study's findings indicate that there are 94 risks identified, where most of the risks are inherent risks associated with the development of the property. The finding also suggests that Shariah-compliant risks, such as the requirements of mua'malat, and principles of zakat and wakaf, are included among the identified risks associated with the development of zakat and wakaf housing. The outcome of the study is significant in providing information to relevant authorities and related organizations in identifying risks accordingly and becoming the basis for the development of a comprehensive risk management framework for zakat and wakaf housing development in Malaysia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)727-739
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Technology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 7 Oct 2022


  • Development
  • Housing
  • Risk identification
  • Wakaf
  • Zakat

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • Strategy and Management
  • Management of Technology and Innovation


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