Ideal ring extensions and trusses

Ryszard R. Andruszkiewicz, Tomasz Brzeziński*, Bernard Rybołowicz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
15 Downloads (Pure)


It is shown that there is a close relationship between ideal extensions of rings and trusses, that is, sets with a semigroup operation distributing over a ternary abelian heap operation. Specifically, a truss can be associated to every element of an extension ring that projects down to an idempotent in the extending ring; every weak equivalence of extensions yields an isomorphism of corresponding trusses. Furthermore, equivalence classes of ideal extensions of rings by integers are in one-to-one correspondence with associated trusses up to isomorphism given by a translation. Conversely, to any truss T and an element of this truss one can associate a ring and its extension by integers in which T is embedded as a truss. Consequently any truss can be understood as arising from an ideal extension by integers. The key role is played by interpretation of ideal extensions by integers as extensions defined by double homothetisms of Redei (L. Redei (1952) [24]) or by self-permutable bimultiplications of Mac Lane (S. Mac Lane (1958) [18]), that is, as integral homothetic extensions. The correspondence between homothetic ring extensions and trusses is used to classify fully up to isomorphism trusses arising from rings with zero multiplication and rings with trivial annihilators.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)237-278
Number of pages42
JournalJournal of Algebra
Early online date2 Mar 2022
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2022


  • Extension
  • Ring
  • Truss

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Algebra and Number Theory


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