How ‘just’ is hybrid governance of urban nature-based solutions?

Helen Toxopeus*, Panagiota Kotsila, Marta Conde, Attila Katona, Alexander P. N. van der Jagt, Friedemann Polzin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

63 Citations (Scopus)
27 Downloads (Pure)


Hybrid (or multi-actor) governance has been identified as a key opportunity for upscaling urban nature-based solutions (referred to as urban NBS), representing a demand-driven and cost-effective realization of urban green infrastructure. However it is unclear how such hybrid governance affects the justice outcomes of urban NBS. Through six in-depth cases of urban NBS we show that hybrid governance can lead to both improvements and deterioration of distributional, procedural and recognition justice, depending on the hybrid governance choices. By exploring the tensions between these justice impacts we formulate three main policy implications for hybrid governance settings: the need for transparent decision-making on the distribution of costs and benefits; safeguarding public control over the urban NBS and the use of scientific expertise in combination with bottom-up consultation procedures to recognize both current and future voices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102839
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020


  • Environmental justice
  • Hybrid governance
  • Public-private partnerships
  • Urban greening
  • Urban nature-based solutions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Development
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Urban Studies
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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