High-Performance Multiresponsive Paper Actuators

Morteza Amjadi, Metin Sitti*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

140 Citations (SciVal)


There is an increasing demand for soft actuators because of their importance in soft robotics, artificial muscles, biomimetic devices, and beyond. However, the development of soft actuators capable of low-voltage operation, powerful actuation, and programmable shape-changing is still challenging. In this work, we propose programmable bilayer actuators that operate based on the large hygroscopic contraction of the copy paper and simultaneously large thermal expansion of the polypropylene film upon increasing the temperature. The electrothermally activated bending actuators can function with low voltages (≤'8 V), low input electric power per area (P ≤ 0.14 W cm-2), and low temperature changes (≤'35 °C). They exhibit reversible shape-changing behavior with curvature radii up to 1.07 cm-1 and bending angle of 360°, accompanied by powerful actuation. Besides the electrical activation, they can be powered by humidity or light irradiation. We finally demonstrate the use of our paper actuators as a soft gripper robot and a lightweight paper wing for aerial robotics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10202-10210
Number of pages9
JournalACS Nano
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 22 Nov 2016


  • copy paper
  • electrothermal actuators
  • hybrid films
  • silver nanowires
  • soft actuators

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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