High Accuracy Localization for Miniature Ingestible Devices using Mutual Inductance

Lichen Yao, Sadeque Reza Khan, Guido Dolmans, Jac Romme, Srinjoy Mitra

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This article demonstrates an inductively coupled high-accuracy localization system for miniature ingestible devices. It utilizes an inductance double capacitances-series capacitance (LCC-S) compensation architecture that enables mutual inductance measurement at primary side that is positioned outside the human body and less constrained by power budget and size than the miniature ingestible. Depending on the secondary circuit architecture, only limited and simple cooperative measurements are needed from the ingestible secondary side, which saves power and area in the miniature device. The errors in the system are modeled thoroughly, providing insights about system require-ments for a particular localization accuracy target for efficient design and to identify key building blocks with large influence on overall performance. The model shows that sub-centimeter localization root-mean-square error (RMSE) can be achieved with a modest external ADC (18bit) using three primary coils and three secondary coils. The localization is verified along a complete small intestine tract with realistic dimensions. The proposed model is verified by simulation and experiment showing that at the selected frequency range up to 5 MHz the body has no influence on the accuracy. The use of 0.9% saline as phantom is proposed which guarantees the analysis validity for all body types.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)662-678
Number of pages17
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Issue number3
Early online date2 Feb 2024
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024


  • Analog-to-Digital Converter
  • Coils
  • CST
  • Inductance
  • Ingestible
  • Intestinal Tract
  • Localization
  • Location awareness
  • Magnetic fields
  • Magnetic flux
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Mutual Inductance
  • Radio frequency
  • Tri-polar Plane Type coil
  • Vector Network Analyzer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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