Hierarchical stratigraphic cycles in the non-marine Clair Group (Devonian) UKCS

T. McKie, I. R. Garden

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    5 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The Devonian lower Clair Group (c. 300-800m thick) is dominantly composed of fluviatile sandstones and conglomerates, aeolian sandstones and minor floodplain and lacustrine shales. These facies are organized into stratigraphical cycles which have a three-fold hierarchy: an unconformity bounded cycle representing first order retreat and advance of the fluvial drainage system; three subsidiary second order cycles bounded by minor unconformities, and numerous third order cycles. These stratigraphical cycles exhibit common characteristics: they are bounded by sharp, commonly erosive surfaces; they are composed of a fining-upwards succession overlain by a variably developed coarsening-upward element; the fining-upward element records a progressive decrease in the fluvial component, and increasing proportion of aeolian, floodplain or lacustrine facies (this trend is reversed in the upper, coarsening-upward section). The grain size of the fluvial facies, and nature of the non-fluvial facies (aeolian vs floodplain/lacustrine) within any order of cycle is dependent on it's position within a lower order (larger scale) cycle. The cycles are areally extensive, and are present in all wells within the Clair Basin, although spatial changes in internal facies make-up occur. The second order cycles show progressive onlap followed by offlap of the basin margin. These hierarchical cycles are interpreted to be the product of changes in the accommodation:supply ratio of the depositional system. An increasing accommodation:supply ratio provided space to preserve the record of waning fluvial influence, enhanced aeolian reworking, preserved floodplain fines or lacustrine mudrocks. In contrast, a reducing accommodation:supply ratio resulted in filling of accommodation space and sediment bypassing. Accommodation space variations were dictated by tectonic variations in strain rate, which caused incremental uplift of the basin margin and subsidence of the basin. Sediment supply changes were influenced by source area uplift, which changed sediment yield, and climate change which affected runoff. Climatic changes are detectable within the non-fluvial elements of the Clair Group by stratigraphic variations between aeolian, floodplain and lacustrine facies. These vary systematically within and between second order unconformity bounded units, suggesting a tectonic influence on climate. Within the second and third order cycles, those which were evolving towards, or were occurring within, semi-arid to arid climatic conditions are commonly (but not exclusively) biased towards fining-upward successions, whilst the more humid systems show a better developed coarsening-upward element. This may be the result of the changing impact of discharge versus sediment supply variations when one of these parameters became suppressed or enhanced under varying climatic conditions.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)139-157
    Number of pages19
    JournalGeological Society Special Publications
    Issue number104
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1996

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