Gut microbiome of Crocodylus porosus and cellular stress: inhibition of nitric oxide, interleukin 1-beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and prostaglandin E2 in cerebrovascular endothelial cells

Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Noor Akbar, Sutherland K. Maciver, Ahmad M. Alharbi, Hasan Alfahemi, Naveed Ahmed Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Crocodiles are renowned for their resilience and capacity to withstand environmental stressors, likely influenced by their unique gut microbiome. In this study, we determined whether selected gut bacteria of Crocodylus porosus exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in response to stress, by measuring nitric oxide release, interleukin 1-beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and prostaglandin E2 in cerebrovascular endothelial cells. Using the Griess assay, the findings revealed that among several C. porosus gut bacterial isolates, the conditioned media containing the metabolites of two bacterial strains (CP27 and CP36) inhibited nitric oxide production significantly, in response to the positive control, i.e., taxol-treatment. Notably, CP27 and CP36 were more potent at reducing nitric oxide production than senloytic compounds (fisetin, quercetin). Using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, PGE2), was markedly reduced by treatment with CP27 and CP36, in response to stress. Both CP27 and CP36 contain a plethora of metabolites to exact their effects [(3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol, 5-methoxytryptophan, nifedipine, 4-chlorotestosterone-17-acetate, 3-phenoxypropionic acid, lactic acid, f-Honaucin A, l,l-Cyclo(leucylprolyl), 3-hydroxy-decanoic acid etc.], indicative of their potential in providing protection against cellular stress. Further high-throughput bioassay-guided testing of gut microbial metabolites from crocodiles, individually as well as in combination, together with the underlying molecular mechanisms, in vitro and in vivo will elucidate their value in the rational development of innovative therapies against cellular stress/gut dysbiosis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number344
JournalArchives of Microbiology
Volume205
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Sept 2023

Keywords

  • Animals
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Dinoprostone
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome
  • Alligators and Crocodiles
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Endothelial Cells

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