Green and Integrated Wearable Electrochemical Sensor for Chloride Detection in Sweat

Francesco Lopresti, Bernardo Patella, Vito Divita, Claudio Zanca, Luigi Botta, Norbert Radacsi, Alan O'Riordan, Giuseppe Aiello, Maïwenn Kersaudy-Kerhoas, Rosalinda Inguanta, Vincenzo La Carrubba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
39 Downloads (Pure)


Wearable sensors for sweat biomarkers can provide facile analyte capability and monitoring for several diseases. In this work, a green wearable sensor for sweat absorption and chloride sensing is presented. In order to produce a sustainable device, polylactic acid (PLA) was used for both the substrate and the sweat absorption pad fabrication. The sensor material for chloride detection consisted of silver-based reference, working, and counter electrodes obtained from upcycled compact discs. The PLA substrates were prepared by thermal bonding of PLA sheets obtained via a flat die extruder, prototyped in single functional layers via CO2 laser cutting, and bonded via hot-press. The effect of cold plasma treatment on the transparency and bonding strength of PLA sheets was investigated. The PLA membrane, to act as a sweat absorption pad, was directly deposited onto the membrane holder layer by means of an electrolyte-assisted electrospinning technique. The membrane adhesion capacity was investigated by indentation tests in both dry and wet modes. The integrated device made of PLA and silver-based electrodes was used to quantify chloride ions. The calibration tests revealed that the proposed sensor platform could quantify chloride ions in a sensitive and reproducible way. The chloride ions were also quantified in a real sweat sample collected from a healthy volunteer. Therefore, we demonstrated the feasibility of a green and integrated sweat sensor that can be applied directly on human skin to quantify chloride ions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8223
Issue number21
Early online date27 Oct 2022
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • chloride detection
  • electrochemical sensors
  • electrolyte assisted electrospinning
  • environmental-friendly
  • laser cutting
  • wearable sensor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Biochemistry
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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