Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm

Ryan E Warburton, Giuseppe Intermite, Maksym Myronov, Phil Allred, David R Leadley, Kevin Gallacher, Douglas J Paul, Neil J Pilgrim, Leon J M Lever, Zoran Ikonic, Robert W Kelsall, Edgar Huante-Ceron, Andrew P Knights, Gerald Stuart Buller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)
350 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization of single-photon avalanche diode detectors with an epitaxial Ge absorption region grown directly on Si are presented. At 100 K, a single-photon detection efficiency of 4% at 1310 nm wavelength was measured with a dark count rate of ∼6 megacounts sresulting in the lowest reported noise-equivalent power for a Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche diode detector (1\times 10-14WHz-1/2.The first report of 1550 nm wavelength detection efficiency measurements with such a device is presented. A jitter of 300 ps was measured, and preliminary tests on after-pulsing showed only a small increase (a factor of 2) in the normalized dark count rate when the gating frequency was increased from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. These initial results suggest that optimized devices integrated on Si substrates could potentially provide performance comparable to or better than that of many commercially available discrete technologies. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6620943
Pages (from-to)3807-3813
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Volume60
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2013

Keywords

  • Detector
  • germanium on silicon
  • single-photon avalanche diode
  • single-photon counting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

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