Gaussian process methodology for multi-frequency marine controlled-source electromagnetic profile estimation in isotropic medium

Muhammad Naeim Mohd Aris, Hanita Daud, Sarat Chandra Dass, Khairul Arifin Mohd Noh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) technique is an application of electromagnetic (EM) waves to image the electrical resistivity of the subsurface underneath the seabed. The modeling of marine CSEM is a crucial and time-consuming task due to the complexity of its mathematical equations. Hence, high computational cost is incurred to solve the linear systems, especially for high-dimensional models. Addressing these problems, we propose Gaussian process (GP) calibrated with computer experiment outputs to estimate multi-frequency marine CSEM profiles at various hydrocarbon depths. This methodology utilizes prior information to provide beneficial EM profiles with uncertainty quantification in terms of variance (95% confidence interval). In this paper, prior marine CSEM information was generated through Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software at various observed hydrocarbon depths (250-2750 m with an increment of 250 m each) and different transmission frequencies (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 Hz). A two-dimensional (2D) forward GP model was developed for every frequency by utilizing the marine CSEM information. From the results, the uncertainty measurement showed that the estimates were close to the mean. For model validation, the calculated root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of variation (CV) proved in good agreement between the computer output and the estimated EM profile at unobserved hydrocarbon depths.

Original languageEnglish
Article number661
JournalProcesses
Volume7
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 Sep 2019

Fingerprint

Hydrocarbons
Mean square error
Electromagnetic waves
Linear systems
Computer simulation
Costs
Experiments
Uncertainty

Keywords

  • Computer experiment, electromagnetic profile estimation
  • Gaussian process
  • Multiple frequency marine controlled-source electromagnetic technique
  • Uncertainty quantification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology

Cite this

@article{7a5a8956da1f4fdeb297b8040048ce57,
title = "Gaussian process methodology for multi-frequency marine controlled-source electromagnetic profile estimation in isotropic medium",
abstract = "The marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) technique is an application of electromagnetic (EM) waves to image the electrical resistivity of the subsurface underneath the seabed. The modeling of marine CSEM is a crucial and time-consuming task due to the complexity of its mathematical equations. Hence, high computational cost is incurred to solve the linear systems, especially for high-dimensional models. Addressing these problems, we propose Gaussian process (GP) calibrated with computer experiment outputs to estimate multi-frequency marine CSEM profiles at various hydrocarbon depths. This methodology utilizes prior information to provide beneficial EM profiles with uncertainty quantification in terms of variance (95{\%} confidence interval). In this paper, prior marine CSEM information was generated through Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software at various observed hydrocarbon depths (250-2750 m with an increment of 250 m each) and different transmission frequencies (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 Hz). A two-dimensional (2D) forward GP model was developed for every frequency by utilizing the marine CSEM information. From the results, the uncertainty measurement showed that the estimates were close to the mean. For model validation, the calculated root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of variation (CV) proved in good agreement between the computer output and the estimated EM profile at unobserved hydrocarbon depths.",
keywords = "Computer experiment, electromagnetic profile estimation, Gaussian process, Multiple frequency marine controlled-source electromagnetic technique, Uncertainty quantification",
author = "Aris, {Muhammad Naeim Mohd} and Hanita Daud and Dass, {Sarat Chandra} and Noh, {Khairul Arifin Mohd}",
year = "2019",
month = "9",
day = "27",
doi = "10.3390/pr7100661",
language = "English",
volume = "7",
journal = "Processes",
issn = "2227-9717",
publisher = "MDPI AG",
number = "10",

}

Gaussian process methodology for multi-frequency marine controlled-source electromagnetic profile estimation in isotropic medium. / Aris, Muhammad Naeim Mohd; Daud, Hanita; Dass, Sarat Chandra; Noh, Khairul Arifin Mohd.

In: Processes, Vol. 7, No. 10, 661, 27.09.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Gaussian process methodology for multi-frequency marine controlled-source electromagnetic profile estimation in isotropic medium

AU - Aris, Muhammad Naeim Mohd

AU - Daud, Hanita

AU - Dass, Sarat Chandra

AU - Noh, Khairul Arifin Mohd

PY - 2019/9/27

Y1 - 2019/9/27

N2 - The marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) technique is an application of electromagnetic (EM) waves to image the electrical resistivity of the subsurface underneath the seabed. The modeling of marine CSEM is a crucial and time-consuming task due to the complexity of its mathematical equations. Hence, high computational cost is incurred to solve the linear systems, especially for high-dimensional models. Addressing these problems, we propose Gaussian process (GP) calibrated with computer experiment outputs to estimate multi-frequency marine CSEM profiles at various hydrocarbon depths. This methodology utilizes prior information to provide beneficial EM profiles with uncertainty quantification in terms of variance (95% confidence interval). In this paper, prior marine CSEM information was generated through Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software at various observed hydrocarbon depths (250-2750 m with an increment of 250 m each) and different transmission frequencies (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 Hz). A two-dimensional (2D) forward GP model was developed for every frequency by utilizing the marine CSEM information. From the results, the uncertainty measurement showed that the estimates were close to the mean. For model validation, the calculated root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of variation (CV) proved in good agreement between the computer output and the estimated EM profile at unobserved hydrocarbon depths.

AB - The marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) technique is an application of electromagnetic (EM) waves to image the electrical resistivity of the subsurface underneath the seabed. The modeling of marine CSEM is a crucial and time-consuming task due to the complexity of its mathematical equations. Hence, high computational cost is incurred to solve the linear systems, especially for high-dimensional models. Addressing these problems, we propose Gaussian process (GP) calibrated with computer experiment outputs to estimate multi-frequency marine CSEM profiles at various hydrocarbon depths. This methodology utilizes prior information to provide beneficial EM profiles with uncertainty quantification in terms of variance (95% confidence interval). In this paper, prior marine CSEM information was generated through Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software at various observed hydrocarbon depths (250-2750 m with an increment of 250 m each) and different transmission frequencies (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 Hz). A two-dimensional (2D) forward GP model was developed for every frequency by utilizing the marine CSEM information. From the results, the uncertainty measurement showed that the estimates were close to the mean. For model validation, the calculated root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of variation (CV) proved in good agreement between the computer output and the estimated EM profile at unobserved hydrocarbon depths.

KW - Computer experiment, electromagnetic profile estimation

KW - Gaussian process

KW - Multiple frequency marine controlled-source electromagnetic technique

KW - Uncertainty quantification

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85074228936&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/pr7100661

DO - 10.3390/pr7100661

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85074228936

VL - 7

JO - Processes

JF - Processes

SN - 2227-9717

IS - 10

M1 - 661

ER -