Capsule endoscopy (CE) has proved to be a powerful tool in the diagnosis and management of small bowel disorders since its introduction in 2001. However, white light imaging (WLI) is the principal technology used in clinical CE at present, and therefore, CE is limited to mucosal inspection, with diagnosis remaining reliant on visible manifestations of disease. The introduction of WLI CE has motivated a wide range of research to improve its diagnostic capabilities through integration with other sensing modalities. These developments have the potential to overcome the limitations of WLI through enhanced detection of subtle mucosal microlesions and submucosal and/or transmural pathology, providing novel diagnostic avenues. Other research aims to utilize a range of sensors to measure physiological parameters or to discover new biomarkers to improve the sensitivity, specificity and thus the clinical utility of CE. This multidisciplinary Review summarizes research into non-WLI CE devices by organizing them into a taxonomic structure on the basis of their sensing modality. The potential of these capsules to realize clinically useful virtual biopsy and computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) is also reported.
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