Gas saturation prediction and effect of low frequencies on acoustic impedance images at Foinaven Field

Sean R. Wagner, Wayne D. Pennington, Colin MacBeth

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Low frequencies are necessary in seismic data for proper acoustic impedance imaging and for petrophysical interpretation. Without lower frequencies, images can be distorted leading to incorrect reservoir interpretation and petrophysical predictions. As part of the Foinaven Active Reservoir Management (FARM) project, a Towed Streamer survey and an Ocean Bottom Hydrophone (OBH) survey were shot in both 1995 and 1998. The OBH surveys contain lower frequencies than the streamer surveys, providing a unique opportunity to study the effects that low frequencies have on both the acoustic impedance image along with petrophysical time-lapse predictions. Artefacts that could easily have been interpreted as high-resolution features in the streamer data impedance volumes can be distinguished by comparison with the impedance volumes created from the OBH surveys containing lower frequencies. In order to obtain results from the impedance volumes, impedance must be related to saturation. The mixing of exsolved gas, oil and water phases involves using the Reuss (uniform) or Voigt (patchy approximation) mixing laws. The Voigt average is easily misused by assuming that the end-points correspond to 0% and 100% gas saturation. This implies that the patches are either 0% gas saturation or 100% gas saturation, which is never the case. Here, the distribution of gas as it comes out of solution is assumed to be uniform until the gas saturation reaches a sufficiently high value (critical gas saturation) to allow gas to flow. Therefore, at low gas saturations the distribution is uniform, but at saturations above critical, it is patchy, with patches that range from critical gas saturation to the highest gas saturation possible (1 minus residual oil and irreducible water saturation). © 2006 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)75-87
    Number of pages13
    JournalGeophysical Prospecting
    Volume54
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2006

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    acoustics
    saturation
    prediction
    gas
    hydrophone
    seafloor
    effect
    acoustic imagery
    oil
    project management
    artifact
    seismic data
    water

    Cite this

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    title = "Gas saturation prediction and effect of low frequencies on acoustic impedance images at Foinaven Field",
    abstract = "Low frequencies are necessary in seismic data for proper acoustic impedance imaging and for petrophysical interpretation. Without lower frequencies, images can be distorted leading to incorrect reservoir interpretation and petrophysical predictions. As part of the Foinaven Active Reservoir Management (FARM) project, a Towed Streamer survey and an Ocean Bottom Hydrophone (OBH) survey were shot in both 1995 and 1998. The OBH surveys contain lower frequencies than the streamer surveys, providing a unique opportunity to study the effects that low frequencies have on both the acoustic impedance image along with petrophysical time-lapse predictions. Artefacts that could easily have been interpreted as high-resolution features in the streamer data impedance volumes can be distinguished by comparison with the impedance volumes created from the OBH surveys containing lower frequencies. In order to obtain results from the impedance volumes, impedance must be related to saturation. The mixing of exsolved gas, oil and water phases involves using the Reuss (uniform) or Voigt (patchy approximation) mixing laws. The Voigt average is easily misused by assuming that the end-points correspond to 0{\%} and 100{\%} gas saturation. This implies that the patches are either 0{\%} gas saturation or 100{\%} gas saturation, which is never the case. Here, the distribution of gas as it comes out of solution is assumed to be uniform until the gas saturation reaches a sufficiently high value (critical gas saturation) to allow gas to flow. Therefore, at low gas saturations the distribution is uniform, but at saturations above critical, it is patchy, with patches that range from critical gas saturation to the highest gas saturation possible (1 minus residual oil and irreducible water saturation). {\circledC} 2006 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.",
    author = "Wagner, {Sean R.} and Pennington, {Wayne D.} and Colin MacBeth",
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    Gas saturation prediction and effect of low frequencies on acoustic impedance images at Foinaven Field. / Wagner, Sean R.; Pennington, Wayne D.; MacBeth, Colin.

    In: Geophysical Prospecting, Vol. 54, No. 1, 01.2006, p. 75-87.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    AU - Wagner, Sean R.

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    N2 - Low frequencies are necessary in seismic data for proper acoustic impedance imaging and for petrophysical interpretation. Without lower frequencies, images can be distorted leading to incorrect reservoir interpretation and petrophysical predictions. As part of the Foinaven Active Reservoir Management (FARM) project, a Towed Streamer survey and an Ocean Bottom Hydrophone (OBH) survey were shot in both 1995 and 1998. The OBH surveys contain lower frequencies than the streamer surveys, providing a unique opportunity to study the effects that low frequencies have on both the acoustic impedance image along with petrophysical time-lapse predictions. Artefacts that could easily have been interpreted as high-resolution features in the streamer data impedance volumes can be distinguished by comparison with the impedance volumes created from the OBH surveys containing lower frequencies. In order to obtain results from the impedance volumes, impedance must be related to saturation. The mixing of exsolved gas, oil and water phases involves using the Reuss (uniform) or Voigt (patchy approximation) mixing laws. The Voigt average is easily misused by assuming that the end-points correspond to 0% and 100% gas saturation. This implies that the patches are either 0% gas saturation or 100% gas saturation, which is never the case. Here, the distribution of gas as it comes out of solution is assumed to be uniform until the gas saturation reaches a sufficiently high value (critical gas saturation) to allow gas to flow. Therefore, at low gas saturations the distribution is uniform, but at saturations above critical, it is patchy, with patches that range from critical gas saturation to the highest gas saturation possible (1 minus residual oil and irreducible water saturation). © 2006 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

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