Gas condensate relative permeability of low permeability rocks: Coupling versus inertia

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Flow around the wellbore of gas-condensate systems, when pressure drops below dew point, is controlled by complex interaction of capillary, viscous and inertial forces. Hence, accurate determination of gas-condensate relative permeability (kr) that is affected by relative impact of these forces is challenging. There are a number of reports demonstrating kr of high permeability rocks affected by both coupling (the increase of kras velocity increases and/or IFT decreases) and inertia (i.e., the reduction of kr as velocity increases) for these low IFT systems. However, there is little information on this subject for low permeability rocks. In this work, we report and analyze a series of steady state kr for a 3.9 mD reservoir rock with low porosity of 6% measured using our unique experimental facilities. These data have been measured at three IFT below one mNm -1 and five velocity levels below 200 md-1. The results indicate that at the highest IFT, inertia is dominant at low condensate to gas flow rate ratio (CGR) whereby kr reduces with increasing velocities. At higher CGR, an increase in kr is observed due to the dominant effect of coupling. At lower IFT, the negative impact of inertia on kr as velocity increases is observed at all CGR. We have recently reported kr of highly conductive propped fractures showing a more pronounced effect of inertia at lower IFT but this is the first report of such behavior for low permeability rocks. We also compare the results with the corresponding predicted k r by the generalized kr correlation, which we reported recently and expresses the combined effect of coupling and inertia with universal parameters. The unique contribution of inertia, as observed in the experiments and predicted by the correlation, is mainly attributed to impact of the single-phase inertial factor and fluid properties. Copyright 2009, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication16th Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference 2009 (MEOS 2009)
PublisherSociety of Petroleum Engineers
Number of pages14
ISBN (Print)9781615670123
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Event16th Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference 2009 - Manama, Bahrain
Duration: 15 Mar 200918 Mar 2009


Conference16th Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference 2009
Abbreviated titleMEOS 2009


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