Fuzzy multi-footprint optimisation (FMFO) for synthesis of a sustainable value chain: Malaysian sago industry

Yoke Kin Wan, Rex T. L. Ng, Denny K. S. Ng*, Kathleen B. Aviso, Raymond R. Tan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


Sago starch is one of the main carbohydrate sources in many South East Asian countries and Papua New Guinea. To produce sago starch, several activities such as plantation, harvesting, starch processing and road transportation are involved in the sago value chain. During the extraction of sago starch from sago palm, a large amount of water is required. The resulting wastewater is often discharged to the environment without proper treatment. In addition, carbon dioxide (CO2) is emitted over the entire value chain. Hence, water footprint (WFP) and carbon footprint (CFP) should be considered in the optimal synthesis of a sustainable sago value chain. In addition, workplace footprint (WPFP), which measures work-related casualties, also needs to be taken into consideration. To balance the economic performance of the value chain with these footprints, a fuzzy multi-footprint optimisation (FMFO) approach is developed in this work. An industrial case study is then solved to illustrate the application of the proposed model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)62-76
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2016


  • Carbon footprint
  • Fuzzy optimisation
  • Sago industry
  • Sustainable value chain
  • Water footprint
  • Workplace footprint

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Strategy and Management
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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