FM Rider: Two-FSK Modulation Based Ambient FM Backscatter Over One Hundred Meters Distance

Kai Xu, Wei Gong, Yuepei Li, Jayakrishnan Methapettyparambu Purushothama, George Goussetis, Stephen McLaughlin, John S. Thompson, Chaoyun Song, Yuan Ding

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Abstract

Backscatter communication (BackCom) technology represents a low-cost and battery-free technology for Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications. One variant of BackCom, termed as ambient BackCom, which uses ambient signals to eliminate the need for a dedicated carrier source is more advantageous due to reduced system complexity and cost. Previous studies on ambient BackCom have primarily relied on amplitude modulation based systems like On-Off-Keying (OOK) modulation, which achieved a maximum tag-to-receiver (Rx) distance of less than five meters. Alternatively, Frequency-Shift-Keying (FSK) based ambient BackCom systems have demonstrated improved distance, but with limitations. This work introduces an ambient broadcast FM BackCom system utilizing in-band 2FSK-based modulation, designed to be compatible with both Mono and
Stereo radio systems and extend communication distance. In order to successfully detect the backscatter 2FSK symbols, two pivotal technologies are employed: Firstly, a Quadrature Demod based In-phase/Quadrature (I/Q) sample processing method enhances the Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise Ratio (SINR). This enhancement has been substantiated through theoretical analysis, simulations, and cable-connected experiments. Secondly, a moving window-based 2FSK demodulation strategy is implemented, exhibiting resilience to tag frequency instability. The proposed system significantly enhances the tag-to-Rx communication distance, achieving an impressive range of over one hundred meters, a considerable improvement over the current state-of-the-art. The
performance of the proposed system is evaluated in both cable-connected and outdoor environments, achieving a maximum bit rate of 333 bits per second (bps) at a distance of 58 meters and a maximum communication distance of 107 meters at a bit rate of 200 bps.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 8 Feb 2024

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