Fluorescence lifetime imaging with distance and ranging using a miniaturised SPAD system

Andrew B. Matheson*, Charlotte Hopkinson, Michael G. Tanner, Robert K. Henderson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this work we demonstrate a miniaturised imaging system based around a time-gated SPAD array operating in a “chip-on-tip” manner. Two versions of the system are demonstrated, each measuring 23 mm × 23 mm × 28 mm with differing fields of view and working distances. Initial tests demonstrate contrast between materials in widefield fluorescence imaging (WFLIm) mode, with frame rates of > 2 Hz achievable. Following this, WFLIm images of autofluorescence in ovine lung tissue are obtained at frame rates of ~ 1 Hz. Finally, the ability of the second system to perform simultaneous WFLIm and time of flight (aka Flourescence Lifetime Imaging Distance and Ranging, FLImDAR) is also tested. This shows that the system is capable of 4 mm resolution of object separation when tested on 3D printed samples. It is further demonstrated as being able to perform scene reconstruction on autofluorescent lung tissue. This system is, to date, the smallest chip on tip WFLIm system published, and is the first demonstration of the FLImDAR technique in a compact, portable system.
Original languageEnglish
Article number13285
JournalScientific Reports
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jun 2024


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