Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector arrays generally suffer from having a low fill-factor, in which the photo-sensitive area of each pixel is small compared to the overall area of the pixel. This paper describes the integration of different configurations of high efficiency diffractive optical microlens arrays onto a 32 × 32 SPAD array, fabricated using a 0.35 μm CMOS technology process. The characterization of SPAD arrays with integrated microlens arrays is reported over the spectral range of 500-900 nm, and a range of f-numbers from f/2 to f/22. We report an average concentration factor of 15 measured for the entire SPAD array with integrated microlens array. The integrated SPAD and microlens array demonstrated a very high uniformity in overall efficiency.
- Photon counting
- Avalanche photodiodes (APDs)
- Micro-optical devices
Intermite, G., McCarthy, A., Warburton, R. E., Ren, X., Villa, F., Lussana, R., Waddie, A. J., Taghizadeh, M. R., Tosi, A., Zappa, F., & Buller, G. S. (2015). Fill-factor improvement of Si CMOS single-photon avalanche diode detector arrays by integration of diffractive microlens arrays. Optics Express, 23(26), 33777-33791. https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.23.033777