Fate and toxicity of 2,4-D and fipronil in mesocosm systems

Bianca Veloso Goulart, Beatriz De Caroli Vizioli, Thandy Junio da Silva Pinto, Juliane Silberschmidt Freitas, Raquel Aparecida Moreira, Laís Conceiçao Menezes Da Silva, Maria Paula Cardoso Yoshii, Laís Fernanda de Palma Lopes, Allan Pretti Ogura, Theodore Burdick Henry, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta Espindola, Cassiana Carolina Montagner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


2,4-D and fipronil are among Brazil's most used pesticides. The presence of these substances in surface waters is a concern for the aquatic ecosystem health. Thus, understanding the behavior of these substances under environmentally relevant conditions is essential for an effective risk assessment. This study aimed to determine the degradation profiles of 2,4-D and fipronil after controlled application in aquatic mesocosm systems under influencing factors such as environmental aspects and vinasse application, evaluate pesticide dissipation at the water-sediment interface, and perform an environmental risk assessment in water and sediment compartments. Mesocosm systems were divided into six different treatments, namely: control (C), vinasse application (V), 2,4-D application (D), fipronil application (F), mixture of 2,4-D and fipronil application (M), and mixture of 2,4-D and fipronil with vinasse application (MV). Pesticide application was performed according to typical Brazilian sugarcane management procedures, and the experimental systems were monitored for 150 days. Pesticide dissipation kinetics was modeled using first-order reaction models. The estimated half-life times of 2,4-D were 18.2 days for individual application, 50.2 days for combined application, and 9.6 days for combined application with vinasse. For fipronil, the respective half-life times were 11.7, 13.8, and 24.5 days. The dynamics of pesticides in surface waters resulted in the deposition of these compounds in the sediment. Also, fipronil transformation products fipronil-sulfide and fipronil-sulfone were quantified in water 21 days after pesticide application. Finally, performed risk assessments showed significant potential risk to environmental health, with RQ values for 2,4-D up to 1359 in freshwater and 98 in sediment, and RQ values for fipronil up to 22,078 in freshwater and 2582 in sediment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number140569
Early online date31 Oct 2023
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


  • Aquatic mesocosm
  • Dissipation
  • Environmental risk assessment
  • Pesticides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pollution
  • General Chemistry
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry


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