Facilitators and barriers of preventive behaviors against COVID-19 during Ramadan: A phenomenology of Indonesian adults

Rakhmat Ari Wibowo, Romi Bhakti Hartarto*, Arnab Bhattacharjee, Dyah Titis Kusuma Wardani, Novat Pugo Sambodo, Prattama Santoso Utomo, Luthvia Annisa, Mohamad Saifudin Hakim, Meida Sofyana, Fatwa Sari Tetra Dewi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Introduction: Intercity mobility restriction, physical distancing, and mask-wearing are preventive behaviors to reduce the transmission of COVID-19. However, strong cultural and religious traditions become particular challenges in Indonesia. This study uses the Behavior Change Wheel to explore barriers and facilitators for intercity mobility restriction, physical distancing, and mask-wearing during Ramadan.

Methods: Semi-structured in-depth interviews with 50 Indonesian adults were conducted between 10 April and 4 June 2020. Having mapped codes into the Capacity, Opportunity, Motivation – Behavior (COM-B), and Theoretical Domain Framework (TDF) model, we conducted summative content analysis to analyze the most identified factors to preventive behaviors and proposed interventions to address those factors.

Results: Belief about the consequence of preventive behaviors was the most mentioned facilitator to all preventive behaviors among compliers. However, optimism as a TDF factor was commonly mentioned as a barrier to preventive behaviors among non-compliers, while environmental context and resources were the most commonly mentioned factors for intercity mobility restriction.

Conclusions: Public health intervention should be implemented considering the persuasion and involvement of religious and local leaders. Concerning job and economic context, policy related to the intercity mobility restriction should be reconsidered to prevent a counterproductive effect.
Original languageEnglish
Article number960500
JournalFrontiers in Public Health
Publication statusPublished - 21 Mar 2023


  • Public Health
  • COVID-19
  • preventive behavior
  • mobility restriction
  • physical distancing
  • face mask


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