Extraction of FAN from malting barley during malting and mashing

Christoforos Lekkas, Anne Elizabeth Hill, Graham G Stewart

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    16 Citations (Scopus)


    Optimization of utilizable extract from raw materials is a high priority
    in both potable and industrial alcohol production. In brewing, free amino
    nitrogen (FAN) is a predictor of fermentation efficiency and, to maximize
    its extraction from raw materials, it is important to identify the points in
    the malting or brewing process where it is formed. In this study, 28 types
    of two-row malted barley were examined before and after mashing, to
    determine their amino acid and ammonia composition. Overall, 88% of
    the total yeast utilizable nitrogen present in wort was a product of
    endosperm degradation during malting barley germination. The
    remaining 12% was formed during the mashing stage. Significantly,
    methionine and aspartic acid, important nitrogen sources for healthy
    fermentation, were found to be minor amino acids in the malted grain.
    Consequently, mashing conditions should be optimized for the production
    of these amino acids from endosperm degradation.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)6-11
    Number of pages6
    JournalJournal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2014


    Dive into the research topics of 'Extraction of FAN from malting barley during malting and mashing'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this