Understanding the reservoir connectivity advances engineering and management decisions and enhances overall field performance. A method to investigate injector to producer connectivity from an identified proportion of the injected brine in the produced water is proposed. Chloride, sodium, boron and lithium are ideal tracers: typically they do not participate in geochemical reactions. These ions track injection water without retardation, and if their concentration differences with formation brine are high enough to overcome measurement errors, then they may be used as indicators of the mixing ratio between injection and formation brines. This paper proposes the use of this mixing ratio to distinguish brines and to calculate the normalised contribution of injected water in the cumulative produced water volume. A producer to injector connectivity plot allows engineers to categorise the pressure support for production wells in one plot. This approach was applied to North Sea field data. A mineral scaling risk analysis was performed using the Injector Contribution characteristic plot. Wells being supported by commingled injected seawater and aquifer water were most at risk of BaSO4 precipitation. Historic data for a field case were analysed to examine potential scaling regimes. A set of well candidates for enhanced oil recovery to reduce residual oil in the oil leg was also identified. Most of the water produced in these wells came from injectors, rather than from the aquifer. Those wells have good communication throughout the oil leg and as a result quick water breakthrough occurs. As well as resulting in an early onset of BaSO4 scaling, an Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) chemical that is injected would more quickly reach the producers and therefore the potential for chemical EOR applications can be measured. This suggested metric helps to identify that other wells do not experience much seawater production, but are more strongly supported by the aquifer, and so there would be no apparent benefit in reducing residual oil by injecting chemical. This set of wells might benefit potentially from infill drilling nearby, or conformance control methods. The proposed technique does not require additional sampling to be performed over and above the measured historical produced water compositions that are routinely collected by operators during offshore production for scale management purposes. The analysis to select well candidates for EOR or areas for infill drilling is significantly more challenging using a conventional approach, and we propose that this novel metric of "Producer to Injector connectivity" will be beneficial for the decision making process..
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geochemistry and Petrology
- Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology