Experimental Study on Backflow Patterns Induced by a Bilateral Groin Pair with Different Spacing

Cuiping Kuang, Yuhua Zheng, Jie Gu, Qingping Zou, Xuejian Han

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1 Citation (Scopus)
98 Downloads (Pure)


Groins are one of the popular manmade structures to modify the hydraulic flow and sediment response in river training. The spacing between groins is a critical consideration to balance the channel-depth and the cost of construction, which is generally determined by the backflow formed downstream from groins. A series of experiments were conducted using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to observe the influence of groin spacing on the backflow pattern of two bilateral groins. The spacing between groins has significant effect on the behavior of the large-scale recirculation cell behind groins. The magnitude of the wake flow induced by a groin was similar to that induced by another groin on the other side, but the flow direction is opposite. The spanwise velocity near the groin tip dictates the recirculation zone width behind the groins due to the strong links between the spanwise velocity and the contraction ratio of channel cross-sections between groins. Based on previous studies and present experimental results, quantitative empirical relationships are proposed to calculate the recirculation zone length behind groins alternately placed at different spacing along riverbanks. This study provides better understanding and a robust formula to assess the backflow extent of alternate groins and identify the optimum groins array configuration.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1486
JournalApplied Sciences
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 6 Feb 2021


  • Backflow
  • Groin
  • PIV
  • Spacing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Instrumentation
  • General Engineering
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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