Quantum photonics is increasingly making use of the energy-time degree of freedom (DoF) to encode information. Its inherently high-dimensionality offers higher information capacity and robustness against noise. Most frequently, the energy-time DoF is exploited in the form of time bins and frequency bins, with direct applications in both quantum information processing tasks and quantum communication protocols. More recently, it has been used also in its pulse modes (or temporal modes) form, sets of states overlapping in time and frequency but kept orthogonal considering their temporal and spectral phase, whose difficult manipulation and characterisation made it less appealing for experimental applications. The production of states encoded in pulse modes has been demonstrated through sum frequency generation in waveguides  and parametric down conversion in bulk crystals , as well as the demonstration of schemes for creating hyper-entanglement among energy-time DoF and other high-dimensional DoFs , . However, their implementation is still an area of continuous development and evolution, given the complexity of manipulating and characterising them.
|Title of host publication||2023 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC)|
|Publication status||Published - 4 Sept 2023|