Exercise-induced oxidative stress in overload training and tapering

N. B J Vollaard, Chris E. Cooper, Jerry P. Shearman

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Tapering can be an effective way of enhancing performance after a period of intensive training, but the mechanisms for this ergogenic effect are unclear. It was hypothesized that overload training will increase oxidative stress through an accumulative effect of repeated high-intensity exercise, whereas tapering will improve the antioxidant defense system and alleviate oxidative stress. Purpose: To study the oxidative stress response to overload training and tapering. Methods: A group of eight well-trained male endurance athletes (30 ± 6yr; 73 ± 13 kg; 64 ± 6 mL·kg -1·min-1

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1335-1341
    Number of pages7
    JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
    Volume38
    Issue number7
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jul 2006

    Fingerprint

    Oxidative Stress
    Exercise
    Performance-Enhancing Substances
    Athletes
    Antioxidants

    Keywords

    • Antioxidants
    • Exercise performance
    • Free radicals
    • Glutathione
    • Oxidatively modified heme

    Cite this

    Vollaard, N. B J ; Cooper, Chris E. ; Shearman, Jerry P. / Exercise-induced oxidative stress in overload training and tapering. In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2006 ; Vol. 38, No. 7. pp. 1335-1341.
    @article{ccedfb72af4f46bb8265ab59792a8538,
    title = "Exercise-induced oxidative stress in overload training and tapering",
    abstract = "Tapering can be an effective way of enhancing performance after a period of intensive training, but the mechanisms for this ergogenic effect are unclear. It was hypothesized that overload training will increase oxidative stress through an accumulative effect of repeated high-intensity exercise, whereas tapering will improve the antioxidant defense system and alleviate oxidative stress. Purpose: To study the oxidative stress response to overload training and tapering. Methods: A group of eight well-trained male endurance athletes (30 ± 6yr; 73 ± 13 kg; 64 ± 6 mL·kg -1·min-1<![CDATA[) performed two 4-wk periods of training in a crossover design. Each period included a 2-wk build-up phase followed either by 2 wk of training at the same load (control) or by a week with a 40{\%} increase in training load (overload) preceding a week with a 60{\%} reduction in training load (taper). Performance was monitored through weekly 15-min cycling time trials preceded by a 45-min preload at 70{\%} Wmax. Blood samples were taken before and after the time trials and analyzed for oxidatively modified heme (OxHm), methemoglobin (metHb), and glutathione redox status. Results: Cycling time trials induced significant postexercise increases in levels of OxHm (+3.8{\%}; P < 0.001) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG: +13.9{\%}; P < 0.05) and decreases in metHb (-12.1{\%}; P < 0.001), reduced glutathione (GSH: -14.4{\%}; P < 0.001), and GSH/GSSG (-29.7{\%}; P < 0.001). Tapering was shown to significantly increase performance (+4.9{\%}; P < 0.05). Training modifications did not influence resting levels or exercise-induced changes of markers of oxidative stress. Conclusion: A short period of tapered training improves performance but does not seem to be associated with substantial changes in exercise-induced oxidative stress. Copyright {\circledC} 2006 by the American College of Sports Medicine.]]>",
    keywords = "Antioxidants, Exercise performance, Free radicals, Glutathione, Oxidatively modified heme",
    author = "Vollaard, {N. B J} and Cooper, {Chris E.} and Shearman, {Jerry P.}",
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    Exercise-induced oxidative stress in overload training and tapering. / Vollaard, N. B J; Cooper, Chris E.; Shearman, Jerry P.

    In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 38, No. 7, 07.2006, p. 1335-1341.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Exercise-induced oxidative stress in overload training and tapering

    AU - Vollaard, N. B J

    AU - Cooper, Chris E.

    AU - Shearman, Jerry P.

    PY - 2006/7

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    N2 - Tapering can be an effective way of enhancing performance after a period of intensive training, but the mechanisms for this ergogenic effect are unclear. It was hypothesized that overload training will increase oxidative stress through an accumulative effect of repeated high-intensity exercise, whereas tapering will improve the antioxidant defense system and alleviate oxidative stress. Purpose: To study the oxidative stress response to overload training and tapering. Methods: A group of eight well-trained male endurance athletes (30 ± 6yr; 73 ± 13 kg; 64 ± 6 mL·kg -1·min-1<![CDATA[) performed two 4-wk periods of training in a crossover design. Each period included a 2-wk build-up phase followed either by 2 wk of training at the same load (control) or by a week with a 40% increase in training load (overload) preceding a week with a 60% reduction in training load (taper). Performance was monitored through weekly 15-min cycling time trials preceded by a 45-min preload at 70% Wmax. Blood samples were taken before and after the time trials and analyzed for oxidatively modified heme (OxHm), methemoglobin (metHb), and glutathione redox status. Results: Cycling time trials induced significant postexercise increases in levels of OxHm (+3.8%; P < 0.001) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG: +13.9%; P < 0.05) and decreases in metHb (-12.1%; P < 0.001), reduced glutathione (GSH: -14.4%; P < 0.001), and GSH/GSSG (-29.7%; P < 0.001). Tapering was shown to significantly increase performance (+4.9%; P < 0.05). Training modifications did not influence resting levels or exercise-induced changes of markers of oxidative stress. Conclusion: A short period of tapered training improves performance but does not seem to be associated with substantial changes in exercise-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2006 by the American College of Sports Medicine.]]>

    AB - Tapering can be an effective way of enhancing performance after a period of intensive training, but the mechanisms for this ergogenic effect are unclear. It was hypothesized that overload training will increase oxidative stress through an accumulative effect of repeated high-intensity exercise, whereas tapering will improve the antioxidant defense system and alleviate oxidative stress. Purpose: To study the oxidative stress response to overload training and tapering. Methods: A group of eight well-trained male endurance athletes (30 ± 6yr; 73 ± 13 kg; 64 ± 6 mL·kg -1·min-1<![CDATA[) performed two 4-wk periods of training in a crossover design. Each period included a 2-wk build-up phase followed either by 2 wk of training at the same load (control) or by a week with a 40% increase in training load (overload) preceding a week with a 60% reduction in training load (taper). Performance was monitored through weekly 15-min cycling time trials preceded by a 45-min preload at 70% Wmax. Blood samples were taken before and after the time trials and analyzed for oxidatively modified heme (OxHm), methemoglobin (metHb), and glutathione redox status. Results: Cycling time trials induced significant postexercise increases in levels of OxHm (+3.8%; P < 0.001) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG: +13.9%; P < 0.05) and decreases in metHb (-12.1%; P < 0.001), reduced glutathione (GSH: -14.4%; P < 0.001), and GSH/GSSG (-29.7%; P < 0.001). Tapering was shown to significantly increase performance (+4.9%; P < 0.05). Training modifications did not influence resting levels or exercise-induced changes of markers of oxidative stress. Conclusion: A short period of tapered training improves performance but does not seem to be associated with substantial changes in exercise-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2006 by the American College of Sports Medicine.]]>

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    KW - Exercise performance

    KW - Free radicals

    KW - Glutathione

    KW - Oxidatively modified heme

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