### Abstract

An anisotropic limit of the 3d plaquette Ising model, in which the plaquette couplings in one direction were set to zero, was solved for free boundary conditions by Suzuki (1972), who later dubbed it the fuki-nuke, or “no-ceiling”, model. Defining new spin variables as the product of nearest-neighbour spins transforms the Hamiltonian into that of a stack of (standard) 2d Ising models and reveals the planar nature of the magnetic order, which is also present in the fully isotropic 3d plaquette model. More recently, the solution of the fuki-nuke model was discussed for periodic boundary conditions, which require a different approach to defining the product spin transformation, by Castelnovo et al. (2010).

We clarify the exact relation between partition functions with free and periodic boundary conditions expressed in terms of original and product spin variables for the 2d plaquette and 3d fuki-nuke models, noting that the differences are already present in the 1d Ising model. In addition, we solve the 2d plaquette Ising model with helical boundary conditions. The various exactly solved examples illustrate how correlations can be induced in finite systems as a consequence of the choice of boundary conditions.

We clarify the exact relation between partition functions with free and periodic boundary conditions expressed in terms of original and product spin variables for the 2d plaquette and 3d fuki-nuke models, noting that the differences are already present in the 1d Ising model. In addition, we solve the 2d plaquette Ising model with helical boundary conditions. The various exactly solved examples illustrate how correlations can be induced in finite systems as a consequence of the choice of boundary conditions.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 388-404 |

Number of pages | 17 |

Journal | Nuclear Physics B |

Volume | 914 |

Early online date | 11 Nov 2016 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - Jan 2017 |

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### Keywords

- Statistical thermodynamics

### Cite this

Mueller, M., Johnston, D. A., & Janke, W. (2017). Exact solutions to plaquette Ising models with free and periodic boundaries.

*Nuclear Physics B*,*914*, 388-404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2016.11.005