Evaluation of the potentials of millet, sorghum and barley with similar nitrogen contents malted at their optimum germination temperatures for use in brewing

Reginald Chukwuemeka Agu, Godfrey Henry Oliver Palmer

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Studies on the malting physiology of barley have led to similar studies on millet and sorghum. This study compares the outcomes of the malting physiology of millet, sorghum and barley. Results show that optimal development of diastatic power, soluble nitrogen, hot water extract and the wide range of amino acids of these three cereals is related to optimal malting conditions and appropriate mashing procedures. Transfer of the nitrogen/extract/soluble nitrogen/diastatic concepts of barley malt do not apply to millet and sorghum. However, all the cereals studied produced the range of amino acids required by yeast for fermentation. Sorghum malt released the highest amounts of group 1 amino acids, usually taken up faster by yeast. It also produced and released the highest amounts of amino acids, classified as group 2, which are assimilated more slowly than group 1 amino acids. It also produced and released more of the amino acids that are slowest to be assimilated during fermentation, as well as very high levels of proline. Optic barley malt produced and released the least amount of proline. The fate of proline during yeast fermentation is not clear, but it is believed that proline is not utilized during fermentation. Copyright (C) 2013 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)258-264
    Number of pages7
    JournalJournal of the Institute of Brewing
    Volume119
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2013

    Keywords

    • barley
    • sorghum
    • millet
    • malting
    • mashing
    • temperature
    • diastatic power
    • hot water extract
    • soluble nitrogen
    • amino acids
    • GIBBERELLIC-ACID GA3
    • PENNISETUM-MAIWA
    • NIGERIAN MILLET
    • POTASSIUM BROMATE
    • BETA-GLUCAN
    • PROTEOLYTIC ACTIVITIES
    • ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE
    • STARCH GRANULES
    • BEER
    • ENZYMES

    Cite this

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    title = "Evaluation of the potentials of millet, sorghum and barley with similar nitrogen contents malted at their optimum germination temperatures for use in brewing",
    abstract = "Studies on the malting physiology of barley have led to similar studies on millet and sorghum. This study compares the outcomes of the malting physiology of millet, sorghum and barley. Results show that optimal development of diastatic power, soluble nitrogen, hot water extract and the wide range of amino acids of these three cereals is related to optimal malting conditions and appropriate mashing procedures. Transfer of the nitrogen/extract/soluble nitrogen/diastatic concepts of barley malt do not apply to millet and sorghum. However, all the cereals studied produced the range of amino acids required by yeast for fermentation. Sorghum malt released the highest amounts of group 1 amino acids, usually taken up faster by yeast. It also produced and released the highest amounts of amino acids, classified as group 2, which are assimilated more slowly than group 1 amino acids. It also produced and released more of the amino acids that are slowest to be assimilated during fermentation, as well as very high levels of proline. Optic barley malt produced and released the least amount of proline. The fate of proline during yeast fermentation is not clear, but it is believed that proline is not utilized during fermentation. Copyright (C) 2013 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling",
    keywords = "barley, sorghum, millet, malting, mashing, temperature, diastatic power, hot water extract, soluble nitrogen, amino acids, GIBBERELLIC-ACID GA3, PENNISETUM-MAIWA, NIGERIAN MILLET, POTASSIUM BROMATE, BETA-GLUCAN, PROTEOLYTIC ACTIVITIES, ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE, STARCH GRANULES, BEER, ENZYMES",
    author = "Agu, {Reginald Chukwuemeka} and Palmer, {Godfrey Henry Oliver}",
    year = "2013",
    doi = "10.1002/jib.91",
    language = "English",
    volume = "119",
    pages = "258--264",
    journal = "Journal of the Institute of Brewing",
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    publisher = "Institute of Brewing and Distilling",
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    Evaluation of the potentials of millet, sorghum and barley with similar nitrogen contents malted at their optimum germination temperatures for use in brewing. / Agu, Reginald Chukwuemeka; Palmer, Godfrey Henry Oliver.

    In: Journal of the Institute of Brewing, Vol. 119, No. 4, 2013, p. 258-264.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    AB - Studies on the malting physiology of barley have led to similar studies on millet and sorghum. This study compares the outcomes of the malting physiology of millet, sorghum and barley. Results show that optimal development of diastatic power, soluble nitrogen, hot water extract and the wide range of amino acids of these three cereals is related to optimal malting conditions and appropriate mashing procedures. Transfer of the nitrogen/extract/soluble nitrogen/diastatic concepts of barley malt do not apply to millet and sorghum. However, all the cereals studied produced the range of amino acids required by yeast for fermentation. Sorghum malt released the highest amounts of group 1 amino acids, usually taken up faster by yeast. It also produced and released the highest amounts of amino acids, classified as group 2, which are assimilated more slowly than group 1 amino acids. It also produced and released more of the amino acids that are slowest to be assimilated during fermentation, as well as very high levels of proline. Optic barley malt produced and released the least amount of proline. The fate of proline during yeast fermentation is not clear, but it is believed that proline is not utilized during fermentation. Copyright (C) 2013 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling

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    JF - Journal of the Institute of Brewing

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