Ethnic Speech and Ethnic Action as Ethnic Behavior: Part 1. Construction of the Brunel Ethnic Behavior Inventory

Stanley O. Gaines*, Katharina Lefringhausen, Divine Charura, Jayanthiny Kangatharan, Jeshika Singh, Nancy Tamimi, Kelly Dieu, Daniel Giles, Stefan Knap, Helen Towers-Evans, Sabahat Zahara

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This article reports the construction of a new survey—specifically, the Brunel Ethnic Behavior Inventory (BEBI)—designed to measure ethnic speech and ethnic action as separate, yet related, aspects of individuals’ ethnic behavior. Using Tajfel’s social identity theory as a conceptual frame of reference, this study sought an answer to the research question of how many factors actually are measured by the BEBI, and tested the hypothesis that a two-factor model (i.e., Ethnic Speech and Ethnic Action as two correlated factors) would provide significantly better goodness of fit to the correlational data than would a one-factor model (i.e., Ethnic Behavior as one undifferentiated factor). Across one pilot sample (n = 101) and two main samples (n = 120 for Sample 1, n = 148 for Sample 2), the study found that not only did the BEBI measure two factors at most (i.e., Ethnic Speech and Ethnic Action) but, consistent with the hypothesis, the two-factor model yielded better goodness of fit than did the one-factor model. Implications for the conceptualization and measurement of Verkuyten’s “ways of ethnicity” are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)73-86
Number of pages14
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2 Apr 2016


  • Ethnic action
  • ethnic behavior
  • ethnic identity
  • ethnic speech
  • exploratory factor analysis
  • social identity theory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anthropology
  • Sociology and Political Science


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