Entanglement certification from theory to experiment

Nicolai Friis, Giuseppe Vitagliano, Mehul Malik, Marcus Huber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

153 Citations (Scopus)
294 Downloads (Pure)


Entanglement is an important resource for quantum technologies. There are many ways quantum systems can be entangled, ranging from the two-qubit case to entanglement in high dimensions or between many parties. Consequently, many entanglement quantifiers and classifiers exist, corresponding to different operational paradigms and mathematical techniques. However, for most quantum systems, exactly quantifying the amount of entanglement is extremely demanding, if at all possible. Furthermore, it is difficult to experimentally control and measure complex quantum states. Therefore, there are various approaches to experimentally detect and certify entanglement when exact quantification is not an option. The applicability and performance of these methods strongly depend on the assumptions regarding the involved quantum states and measurements, in short, on the available prior information about the quantum system. In this Review, we discuss the most commonly used quantifiers of entanglement and survey the state-of-the-art detection and certification methods, including their respective underlying assumptions, from both a theoretical and an experimental point of view.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)72-87
Number of pages16
JournalNature Reviews Physics
Issue number1
Early online date19 Dec 2018
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019


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