Enhancing efficacy of existing antibacterials against selected multiple drug resistant bacteria using cinnamic acid-coated magnetic iron oxide and mesoporous silica nanoparticles

Noor Akbar, Muhammad Kawish, Tooba Jabri, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Muhammad Raza Shah, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Developing new antibacterial drugs by using traditional ways is insufficient to meet existing challenges; hence, new strategies in the field of antibacterial discovery are necessary. An alternative strategy is to improve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics. Herein, the antibacterial efficacy of drugs (Cefixime, Sulfamethoxazole, and Moxifloxacin) and drug-loaded cinnamic acid-coated magnetic iron oxide and mesoporous silica nanoparticles (NPs) was elucidated versus Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1 and Serratia marcescens) and Gram-positive bacteria (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Bacillus cereus). NPs were synthesized by co-precipitation and the Stöber method, and characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, Zetasizer, and Atomic force microscopy. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were accomplished to determine drug cytotoxicity against human cells. Spherical NPs in the range of 118–362 nm were successfully synthesized. Antibacterial assays revealed that drugs conjugated with NPs portray enhanced bactericidal efficacies against multiple drug resistant bacteria compared to the drugs alone. Of note, Cefixime-conjugated NPs against Escherichia coli K1 and Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus, resulted in the complete eradication of all bacterial isolates tested at significantly lower concentrations compared to the antibiotics alone. Likewise, conjugation of Moxifloxacin resulted in the complete elimination of E. coli K1 and MRSA. Of note, nano-formulated drugs presented negligible cytotoxicity against human cells. These results depict potent, and enhanced efficacy of nano-formulated drugs against medically important bacteria and can be used as alternatives to current antibiotics. Future in vivo studies and clinical studies are warranted in prospective years to realize these expectations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)438-454
Number of pages17
JournalPathogens and Global Health
Volume116
Issue number7
Early online date22 Dec 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 3 Oct 2022

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