Selective and reversible permeabilization of the cell wall permeability barrier is the focus for many biotechnological applications. In this article, the basic principles for reversible membrane permeabilization, based on biological, chemical, and physical methods are reviewed. Emphasis is given to electroporation (electropermeabilization) which tends to be the most popular method for membrane permeabilization and for introduction of foreign molecules into the cells. The applications of this method in industrial processes as well as the critical factors and parameters which affect the success of this approach are discussed. The different strategies developed throughout the years for increased transformation efficiencies of the industrially important amino acid-overproducing bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum, are also summarized. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Corynebacterium glutamicum
- Membrane permeabilization