Enhancement and validation of building integrated PV system: 3D modelling, techno-economics and environmental assessment

Edmund Jin Wen Thoy, Yun Ii Go*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)
29 Downloads (Pure)


The incorporation of photovoltaic elements in buildings have been gaining more mileage in recent times. Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) technologies are on the rise in terms of efficiency and longevity, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 15.7 % since 2018. The costs of production and raw materials of BIPV have reached a level that is economically beneficial for building developers to adopt the technology. However, the lack of infrastructure as compared to traditional means of energy production has impeded the maturing of such technologies. The issue of conversion efficiency and module degradation have been addressed but not completely resolved by the scientific community. Although attractive governmental incentives such as net energy metering (NEM) and better returns of investments are shifting the tide as of late, what remains to be seen is the mass adoption of BIPV technology in residential and commercial infrastructure. This work aims to develop an optimal layout for photovoltaic panels in the university building precise 3D modelling and solar energy resource assessment. The method adopted is based on energy production capability of a 3D modelled BIPV system which will be carried out in three stages. They are i) Assessment of geographical location and meteorological data, ii) Development of 3D model and orientation analytics and (iii) Development of optimal PV layout. Three systems were considered for this study, which is the roof and two systems on the Southern Façade. The proposed rooftop BIPV design is expected to provide 49.27 % of the building's energy consumption while reducing CO2 emissions by 20155.32 tonnes throughout the lifespan of the system's deployment. This paper serves as a pioneering study on the feasibility of a BIPV system through the incorporation of building geometry for computations on incident solar irradiation. Through the reduction of electricity imported from the grid, the adoption of the BIPV system also serves as an incremental step towards achieving Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB) status for HWUM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)444-466
Number of pages23
JournalEnergy and Built Environment
Issue number4
Early online date20 May 2021
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022


  • Building geometry
  • Energy yield
  • Facade
  • Payback
  • Performance ratio

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Transportation


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