Enhanced chemical weathering as a geoengineering strategy to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide, supply nutrients, and mitigate ocean acidification

Jens Hartmann*, A. Joshua West, Phil Renforth, Peter Köhler, Christina L. De La Rocha, Dieter A. Wolf-Gladrow, Hans H. Dürr, Jürgen Scheffran

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

276 Citations (Scopus)


Chemical weathering is an integral part of both the rock and carbon cycles and is being affected by changes in land use, particularly as a result of agricultural practices such as tilling, mineral fertilization, or liming to adjust soil pH. These human activities have already altered the terrestrial chemical cycles and land-ocean flux of major elements, although the extent remains difficult to quantify. When deployed on a grand scale, Enhanced Weathering (a form of mineral fertilization), the application of finely ground minerals over the land surface, could be used to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. The release of cations during the dissolution of such silicate minerals would convert dissolved CO2 to bicarbonate, increasing the alkalinity and pH of natural waters. Some products of mineral dissolution would precipitate in soils or be taken up by ecosystems, but a significant portion would be transported to the coastal zone and the open ocean, where the increase in alkalinity would partially counteract "ocean acidification" associated with the current marked increase in atmospheric CO2. Other elements released during this mineral dissolution, like Si, P, or K, could stimulate biological productivity, further helping to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. On land, the terrestrial carbon pool would likely increase in response to Enhanced Weathering in areas where ecosystem growth rates are currently limited by one of the nutrients that would be released during mineral dissolution. In the ocean, the biological carbon pumps (which export organic matter and CaCO3 to the deep ocean) may be altered by the resulting influx of nutrients and alkalinity to the ocean. This review merges current interdisciplinary knowledge about Enhanced Weathering, the processes involved, and the applicability as well as some of the consequences and risks of applying the method. Key Points Enhanced Weathering impacts the C-cycle, NPP and ocean acidity Enhanced Weathering alters besides the C-cycle further nutrient cycles The rock for crop concept is already applied as Enhanced Weathering

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113-149
Number of pages37
JournalReviews of Geophysics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2013


  • carbon
  • climate change
  • enhanced weathering
  • geoengineering
  • global biogeochemical cycles
  • silicate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics


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