A comprehensive study of the enantioselective Pd-catalyzed α-arylation of N-Boc pyrrolidine has been carried out. The protocol involves deprotonation of N-Boc pyrrolidine using s-BuLi/(−)-sparteine in TBME or Et2O at −78 °C, transmetalation with ZnCl2 and Negishi coupling using Pd(OAc)2, t-Bu3P-HBF4 and the aryl bromide. This paper reports several new features including in situ React IR spectroscopic monitoring of the process; use of (−)-sparteine and the (+)-sparteine surrogate to access products with opposite configuration; development of a catalytic asymmetric lithiation–Negishi coupling reaction; extension to a wide range of heteroaromatic bromides; total synthesis of (R)-crispine A, (S)-nicotine and (S)-SIB-1508Y via short synthetic routes; and examples of α-vinylation of N-Boc pyrrolidine using vinyl bromides exemplified by the total synthesis of naturally occurring (+)-maackiamine (thus establishing its configuration as (R)). In this way, the full scope and limitations of the methodology are delineated.
Barker, G., McGrath, J. L., Klapars, A., Stead, D., Zhou, G., Campos, K. R., & O'Brien, P. (2011). Enantioselective, Palladium-Catalyzed α-Arylation of N-Boc Pyrrolidine: In Situ React IR Spectroscopic Monitoring, Scope, and Synthetic Applications. Journal of Organic Chemistry, 76(15), 5936-5953. https://doi.org/10.1021/jo2011347