Effects of reaction parameters on two-step alkali-alkali transesterification

Marwan Yaacob, Yoshimitsu Uemura, Khalik M. Sabil, Takami Kai, Katsuki Kusakabe, Siti Shafriena Mohd Affandi, Noridah Osman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Biodiesel or fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) is a renewable source of fuel which has the potential to substitute petroleum based diesel. In this study, a two-step alkali-alkali transesterification method was utilised for the production of FAME from palm oil and waste palm cooking oil (WPCO) with KOH as a catalyst. The effects of total catalyst loading, reaction temperature and total oil to methanol molar ratio on reaction performance were investigated. Palm oil and WPCO showed similar trends during investigation for each parameter. The findings showed that both palm oil and WPCO are feasible feedstock for FAME production by utilising the two-step alkali-alkali transesterification process. FAME yield and FAME purity were compared in deciding the optimum reaction conditions for both palm oil and WPCO.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)702-706
Number of pages5
JournalNihon Enerugi Gakkaishi/Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 7 Oct 2013


  • Alkali catalyst
  • Biodiesel
  • FAME
  • Palm oil
  • Two-step transesterification
  • Waste palm cooking oil

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy(all)


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