Effect of roof cooling and air curtain gates on thermal and wind conditions in stadiums for hot climates

Fangliang Zhong*, Hassam Nasarullah Chaudhry, John Kaiser Calautit

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
131 Downloads (Pure)


To host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, Qatar is facing the greatest challenge in balancing the energy consumptions for cooling the stadiums and the thermal comfort for both players and spectators. Previous studies have not considered using a combined configuration of air curtain and roof cooling supply slot in stadiums to prevent the infiltration of outside hot air and reduce the cooling system’s energy consumption. This paper presents a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study of thermal and wind modeling around a baseline stadium and simulates the cooling scenarios of air curtains and roof cooling along with the energy consumption estimations for the World Cup matches using Building Energy Simulation (BES). Sensitivity analysis of different supply speeds and supply temperatures of air curtain gates and roof cooling was carried out, and the results showed that scenario six, which provides supply air of 25 m/s and 20 m/s at the roof and air curtain gates with a supply temperature of 10 °C, demonstrates optimal thermal performances on both the spectator tiers and the pitch. Compared with the baseline stadium performance, the average reductions in temperature on the pitch and spectator tiers under scenario six could reach 15 °C and 14.6 °C. The reductions in the Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied values for the upper and lower tiers as well as the pitch were 63%, 74%, and 78%. In terms of the estimated energy consumptions, scenario six would consume electric energy per match at a rate of 25.5 MWh compared with 22.8 MWh for one of the stadiums in the 2010 South Africa World Cup and 42.0 MWh for the 2006 Germany World Cup. Future research is recommended to explore the influence of supply angle on air curtain gates and roof cooling supply slots’ performances.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3941
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2021


  • Air curtain
  • Building energy simulation
  • Computational fluid dynamics
  • Hot climates
  • Stadium cooling
  • Thermal comfort

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Control and Optimization
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Effect of roof cooling and air curtain gates on thermal and wind conditions in stadiums for hot climates'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this